Saint Apollinaris, Bishop, Martyr

Matthew 12:38-42

There is something greater than Solomon here

Some of the scribes and Pharisees spoke up. ‘Master,’ they said ‘we should like to see a sign from you.’ He replied, ‘It is an evil and unfaithful generation that asks for a sign! The only sign it will be given is the sign of the prophet Jonah. For as Jonah was in the belly of the sea-monster for three days and three nights, so will the Son of Man be in the heart of the earth for three days and three nights. On Judgement day the men of Nineveh will stand up with this generation and condemn it, because when Jonah preached they repented; and there is something greater than Jonah here. On Judgement day the Queen of the South will rise up with this generation and condemn it, because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and there is something greater than Solomon here.’


Micah 6:1-4,6-8

The Lord asks only this: to act justly, to love tenderly, to walk humbly

Listen to what the Lord is saying:

Stand up and let the case begin in the hearing of the mountains

and let the hills hear what you say.

Listen, you mountains, to the Lord’s accusation,

give ear, you foundations of the earth,

for the Lord is accusing his people,

pleading against Israel:

My people, what have I done to you,

how have I been a burden to you? Answer me.

I brought you out of the land of Egypt,

I rescued you from the house of slavery;

I sent Moses to lead you,

with Aaron and Miriam.

– ‘With what gift shall I come into the Lord’s presence

and bow down before God on high?

Shall I come with holocausts,

with calves one year old?

Will he be pleased with rams by the thousand,

with libations of oil in torrents?

Must I give my first-born for what I have done wrong,

the fruit of my body for my own sin?’

– What is good has been explained to you, man;

this is what the Lord asks of you:

only this, to act justly,

to love tenderly

and to walk humbly with your God.


Psalm 49(50):5-6,8-9,16-17,21,23

I will show God’s salvation to the upright.

‘Summon before me my people

who made covenant with me by sacrifice.’

The heavens proclaim his justice,

for he, God, is the judge.

I will show God’s salvation to the upright.

‘I find no fault with your sacrifices,

your offerings are always before me.

I do not ask more bullocks from your farms,

nor goats from among your herds.

I will show God’s salvation to the upright.

‘But how can you recite my commandments

and take my covenant on your lips,

you who despise my law

and throw my words to the winds,

I will show God’s salvation to the upright.

‘You do this, and should I keep silence?

Do you think that I am like you?

a sacrifice of thanksgiving honours me

and I will show God’s salvation to the upright.’

I will show God’s salvation to the upright.

Source: Jerusalem Bible

Catechism of the Catholic Church

Christ in the tomb in his body

625 Christ’s stay in the tomb constitutes the real link between his passible state before Easter and his glorious and risen state today. The same person of the “Living One” can say, “I died, and behold I am alive for evermore”:

God [the Son] did not impede death from separating his soul from his body according to the necessary order of nature, but has reunited them to one another in the Resurrection, so that he himself might be, in his person, the meeting point for death and life, by arresting in himself the decomposition of nature produced by death and so becoming the source of reunion for the separated parts.

626 Since the “Author of life” who was killed is the same “living one [who has] risen”, the divine person of the Son of God necessarily continued to possess his human soul and body, separated from each other by death:

By the fact that at Christ’s death his soul was separated from his flesh, his one person is not itself divided into two persons; for the human body and soul of Christ have existed in the same way from the beginning of his earthly existence, in the divine person of the Word; and in death, although separated from each other, both remained with one and the same person of the Word.


Apollinaris of Ravenna (Italian: Apollinare) is a Syrian saint, whom the Roman Martyrology describes as “a bishop who, according to tradition, while spreading among the nations the unsearchable riches of Christ, led his flock as a good shepherd and honoured the Church of Classis near Ravenna by a glorious martyrdom.”

Biography

According to tradition, he was a native of Antioch in Roman Province of Syria. As the first Bishop of Ravenna, he faced nearly constant persecution. He and his flock were exiled from Ravenna during the persecutions of Emperor Vespasian (or Nero, depending on the source). On his way out of the city he was identified, arrested as being the leader, tortured and martyred by being run through with a sword. Centuries after his death, he appeared in a vision to Saint Romuald.

Other legends have him martyred under the Emperor Valens.

The early 20th-century Catholic Encyclopaedia rendered the traditional version as follows:

He was made Bishop of Ravenna, Italy, by Saint Peter himself. The miracles he wrought there soon attracted official attention, for they and his preaching won many converts to the Faith, while at the same time bringing upon him the fury of the idolaters, who beat him cruelly and drove him from the city. He was found half-dead on the seashore, and kept in concealment by the Christians, but was captured again and compelled to walk on burning coals and a second time expelled. But he remained in the vicinity, and continued his work of evangelization. We find him then journeying in the Roman province of Aemilia [in Italy]. A third time he returned to Ravenna. Again he was captured, hacked with knives, had scalding water poured over his wounds, was beaten in the mouth with stones because he persisted in preaching, and was flung into a horrible dungeon, loaded with chains, to starve to death; but after four days he was put on board a ship and sent to Greece. There the same course of preachings, miracles and sufferings continued; and when his very presence caused the oracles to be silent, he was, after a cruel beating, sent back to Italy. All this continued for three years, and a fourth time he returned to Ravenna. By this time Vespasian was Emperor, and he, in answer to the complaints of the pagans, issued a decree of banishment against the Christians. Apollinaris was kept concealed for some time, but as he was passing out of the gates of the city, was set upon and savagely beaten, probably at Classis, a suburb, but he lived for seven days, foretelling meantime that the persecutions would increase, but that the Church would ultimately triumph. It is not certain what was his native place, though it was probably Antioch. Nor is it sure that he was one of the seventy-two disciples of Christ, as has been suggested. The precise date of his consecration cannot be ascertained, but he was Bishop of Ravenna for twenty-six years.

Source: Wikipedia